Bus Karo 2.0 – Case Studies from India

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Figures


Figure 1 EMBARQ India’s Bus Karo Programme

Figure 2 Launch of Bus Karo Version 1.0 (EMBARQ India 2009)

Figure 3 Urban Bus Reforms discussed in this Guidebook

Figure 4 Bus Transport Mode Shares (excluding non-motorized trips) in Indian cities; (RITES 2011) (WilburSmith Associates 2011); (Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology & LEA Associates South Asia Pvt Ltd n.d.); (Pune Municipal Corporation 2008); (Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport - CEPT University n.d.); (LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd. 2011); (RITES 2011); (CMDA (Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority) 2010); (Ministry of Urban Development (Delhi Division) 2007); (Lea International Ltd., Canada and LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd., India 2008)

Figure 5 JnNURM Round 1 Funding

Figure 6 BMTC Bus Corridors (BMTC 2014)

Figure 7 Fuel Efficiency Workshop in Vishakhapatnam (EMBARQ India 2012)

Figure 8 EMBARQ’s Fuel Efficiency Training Programme Outcomes (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 9 Traffic and Transport Management Centre in Bangalore (BMTC 2014)

Figure 10 With the launch of the MyBus system, 24kms of BRTS are presently operational (Bhopal City Link Limited 2014)

Figure 11 JnNURM Cities, BRT and Bus Corridors in India (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 12 A way forward for City Bus Operations: Cities’ Role

Figure 13 Scope of the Guidebook

Figure 14 Data collection as a tool to address changes in travel patterns

Figure 15 Boarding and Alighting Patterns between Hubli and Dharwad (Northeast Karnataka Road Transport Corporation 2014)

Figure 16 Demand Variation by Time of Day from Rashtrapati Chowk, Gulbarga (Northeast Karnataka Road Transport Corporation 2014)

Figure 17 Cycle Time variation for Route 207 in Bhubaneswar (DTS 2012)

Figure 18Two types of Network Structures: Grid (left) and Radial (right) (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 19 The traffic generator nodes in Bellary, Karnataka and the existing road network.(Northeast Karnataka Road Transport Corporation 2014)

Figure 20 A preliminary draft of the possible public transport routes for Bellary, based on the existing generator nodes and road network.(Northeast Karnataka Road Transport Corporation 2014)

Figure 21 The existing ridership can be calculated by multiplying the number of vehicles and occupancy

(EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 22 Chapter Summary: a 3-step process to advance from an informal to a formal transport system (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 23 The proposed network structure for Gulbarga (Northeast Karnataka Road Transport Corporation 2014)

Figure 24 Two operational models destination-oriented (left) and direction-oriented (right) services (Modified from (Gustav Nielsen 2005))

Figure 25 The BIG Bus Network in Bangalore (BMTC 2014)

Figure 26 Chandapura Junction (BMTC 2014)

Figure 27 Trip Patterns at Chandapura Junction (BMTC 2014)

Figure 28 Bus Stop Access Modes at Chandapura Junction (BMTC 2014)

Figure 29 The plan for the BIG Bus pilot project along Hosur Road (BMTC 2014)

Figure 30 Feeder services for the BIG Bus Network (BMTC 2014)

Figure 31 BEST’s Feeder Route Planning Structure (BEST 2014)

Figure 32 Examples of Neighbourhood Collector Routes in Goregaon, Mumbai (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 33 Route 172 (in blue) is a long feeder route made up of combinations of several smaller routes

(EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 34 The Mumbai CBD is comprised of many smaller districts. (EMBARQ India 2014)2014)

Figure 35 Safe and accessible infrastructure for transport networks (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 36 Eight factors to consider in bus stop location planning (Transport for London 2006)

Figure 37a Placement of pedestrian crossing behind bus stops (Southeastern Pennsylvania Transport Authority 2012)

Figure 37b Bus stops located on the far side (right) are desirable (Southeastern Pennsylvania Transport Authority 2012)

Figure 38 Pedestrian crossings behind the waiting bus reduces the occurrence of pedestrian-bus conflict and

improves visibility of oncoming traffic (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 39 General Aspects of Safety Design - lane markings, signage, traffic-calming, pedestrian crossings and median dividers.(EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 40 A tighter kerb radius at the intersection can reduce over-speeding (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 41 Extension of the kerb at the bus stop can make it easier for the bus to pull up closer to the stop (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 42 The grade-separated Chandapura Junction (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 43 Interchange design at Chandapura Junction, Bangalore (Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Authority 2013)

Figure 44 Supermarket Station was designed as a terminal to accommodate increased use. (Northeast Karnataka Road Transport Corporation 2014)

Figure 45 A proposed Bus bay configuration (EMBARQ India 2013)

Figure 46 Escalators proposed for passenger convenience and fast movement (EMBARQ India 2013)

Figure 47 Proposed Park-n-Ride facility above the bus terminal (EMBARQ India 2013)

Figure 48 Four factors that impact Fuel Efficiency Training and Management

Figure 49 Bus drivers face stressful work environments, which can negatively impact operations (John L.M. Tse 2006)

Figure 50 Driving Training sessions (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 51 A foot rest pad adds to driver convenience and reduces the fatigue factor

(Image Credit: Melissa Kim)

Figure 52 Fuel efficiency booklet: drivers record their daily achieved kmpl (APSRTC 2012)

Figure 53 Driver list for counseling - those that consistently achieve low fuel efficiency, must undergo

refresher courses (APSRTC 2012)

Figure 54 ITS in the Indian Context

Figure 55 ITS Components actively used in bus transport in India

Figure 56 PIS Board used in Mysore (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 57 Fuel Level Monitoring data is useful to prevent fuel theft (DTS 2014)

Figure 58 Movement of the Indore BRTS is prioritised through TSP technology (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 59 Variations in cycle time achieved at the intersection (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 60 The waiting time for buses across successive time periods, after the TSP plan was introduced (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 61 Janmarg BRTS Control Centre (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 62 Schedule Adherence Report, Vehicle No. OR-02-BQ-3718(DTS 2014)

Figure 63 Mysore’s Schedule Adherence Report (KSRTC 2013)

Figure 64 Bus Arrivals at Jaidev Vihar towards Nandankanan Route 207 (DTS 2014)

Figure 65 Route 28 Average Passenger Load – RK Beach to Simhachalam (DTS 2014)

Figure 66 Boarding - Alighting Pattern on Route G2, Bangalore (BMTC 2014)

Figure 67 Origin-Destination Distribution (Data Source: DTS 2012)

Figure 68 The purpose of branding, marketing and communications in the Public Transport sector (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 69 LA’s Metro Orange Line includes both a metro and a BRT corridor. Its colour scheme is highly visible, making it clear to users that they are parts of the same network. (STV 2013) (Richard 2009)

Figure 70 Identifying how the user perceives the service is an important step for public transport branding (Nanni 2012)

Figure 71 The four elements of the proposed BIG Bus Network (BMTC 2014)

Figure 72 Strong use of Branding (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 73 Approach to Marketing Public Transport Modified from (The Marketing Institute 2013)

Figure 74 Highly interactive sessions were aimed to address negative perceptions (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 75 The Facebook page reaches 810 likes and carries a wealth of project information (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 76 Post-launch reactions from citizens (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 77 The marketing utilized bold signage to attract public attention to the BRTS (BCLL 2014)

Figure 78 The MyBus marketing team used high-quality imagery to send out key messages (BCLL 2014)

Figure 79 The BRTS Police vehicle brought additional visibility to the project ( (BCLL 2014)

Figure 80 A variety of pamphlets were used to communicate information to the public (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 81 Specialized Focus Groups are intensive sessions targeting different groups of people (AICTSL 2014)

Figure 82 The awareness-raising workshop in Bhopal (BCLL 2014)

Figure 83 The quarterly newsletter brings constant project updates to the public (BCLL 2014)

Figure 84 A free MyBus pass (BCLL 2014)

Figure 85 Comparative images of before and after the project implementation sent a strong message to the public (BCLL 2014)

Figure 86 Easy and fun-to-read booklets were designed to attract various types of readers (Lokre 2014)

Figure 87 Exhibitions were significant in providing information to the public.(Lokre 2014)

Figure 88 Prototype stations were built and open to the public prior to the system’s launch (Lokre 2014)

Figure 89 Prioritize information on the signage(Transport for London 2010)

Figure 90 Use symbols and pictograms where possible (Transit Research Board 1996)

Figure 91 Indicate information spatially (Sound Transit 2004)

Figure 92 The 9 principles of wayfinding (Adopted from: (Sound Transit 2004)(Transit Research Board 1996) (Transport for London 2010))

Figure 93 Chapter Structure

Figure 94 Distribution of bus operation cost under major heads for every bus kilometer travetlled (Naya Raipur Development Authority 2013)

Figure 95 Technical Fare Calculation (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 96 BMTC Fare Change (Ministry of Urban Development Authority n.d.)

Figure 97 TTMC at Yeshwanthpur (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 98 Commercial Development at Shantinagar TTMC (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 99 ASTC’s Multi-Level Car Park, Paltan Bazaar, Guwahati (ASTC 2014)

Figure 100 ASTC Digital Cinema Hall, Guwahati (ASTC 2014)

Figure 101 ASTC NRL Petrol Pump at Nagaon, Guwahati (ASTC 2014)

Figure 102 ASTC Yatri Niwas, Hotel Contour, Guwahati (ASTC 2014)

Figure 103 The States’ Role in City Bus Operations (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 104 Share of each wheel in run-over crashes for MTC City Bus services in Chennai

(Padmanaban, et al. 2010)

Figure 105 Overcrowded bus in Chennai puts commuters at risk of falling out and getting run over (Sreevatsan 2010)

Figure 106 The Indore BRT alignment (EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 107 The impacts of segregated bus infrastructure on bus operations and traffic

(EMBARQ India 2014)

Figure 108 Ridership on AB Road before and after BRTS launch (Atal Indore City Transport Service Ltd. 2014)  

Figure 109 Bus maintenance in Mira-Bhayander occurs under flyovers and on streets (Mira-Bhayander Municipal Transport 2014)


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